Carl Jung was a Swiss psychologist, the founder of analytical psychology. Early in his career, Jung was a protege of Sigmund Freud, but the two split over widening differences in their theories - most notably the nature of the unconscious. Jung introduced a number of important psychological concepts, including the collective unconscious, archetypes, and individuation.
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The collective unconscious is expressed through a variety of archetypes, universal symbols that exist in a wide range of cultural traditions. Examples of these archetypes include the Shadow, the Trickster, and the Great Mother.
Probably the most important of the archetypes are those of the Anima (the feminine side of men) and the Animus (the masculine side of women). Jung uses the personalities of four women (Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia) to describe the Anima.
EXTROVERT / INTROVERT
Jung coined the terms extrovert and introvert, contributing significantly to the study of human personalities. The Myers-Briggs personality test is an extension of Jung’s theories of personality. Jung explained these personality types in his book, Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
Jung coined the term synchronicity to explain “meaningful coincidences” in life. He used the example of a man who, after recounting a dream of a scarab beetle, had a beetle fly in the window land on him. Jung was influenced by his relationship with scientists Albert Einstein and Wolfgang Pauli in explaining this theory.
Red Book (also known as Liber Novus) is the name given to Jung’s notebook that he used throughout his career. It was not published until 2009, nearly fifty years after his death. Another collection of Jung’s notes are known as the Black Books. Other important works of Jung include Seven Sermons to the Dead and Answer to Job.
Quizbowl is about learning, not rote memorization, so we encourage you to use this as a springboard for further reading rather than as an endpoint. Here are a few things to check out:
* If you’d like to read about Jung’s archetypes, this article outlines them nicely.
* This is an interesting article about the relationship between Carl Jung and Wolfgang Pauli and the development of the concept of synchronicity.
* NPR produced a segment on Carl Jung and the publication of the Red Book in 2009. You can listen to it below:
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