Black holes seem to belong more to science fiction than reality. A region of space so dense that ** not even light can escape its gravitational field**, a black hole defies logic. Since we

**, we draw conclusions about black holes based on how they affect nearby objects. Astronomers believe that black holes form from the remnants of a**

*cannot directly observe them***. Black holes’ mass varies, from**

*large star that explodes in a supernova***(anywhere from 10 to 24 times as massive as the sun), to**

*stellar mass black holes***(which can be millions, if not billions, of times as massive as the sun). Prepare to get sucked into the strange world of black holes!**

*supermassive black holes**By analyzing questions, you can see patterns emerge, patterns that will help you answer questions. Qwiz5 is all about those patterns. In each installment of Qwiz5, we take an answer line and look at its five most common clues. Here we explore five clues that will help you answer a tossup on *** black holes**.

__EVENT HORIZON__

A black hole’s event horizon is the region of space beyond which ** it is impossible to escape the black hole’s gravitational field.** The event horizon even pulls in light, so we cannot observe anything of the black hole beyond this point. This includes the infinitely dense

**at the center of the black hole. The**

*singularity***refers to the observation that the singularity is always hidden by the event horizon.**

*cosmic censorship conjecture*

__NO-HAIR THEOREM__

The No-Hair Theorem derives from Einstein’s *theory of general relativity**. *It states that an ** isolated black hole **(that is, one that is not interacting with matter) only has three measurable properties:

**and**

*mass, angular momentum,***. The theorem does have several weaknesses. Most notably, it presumes that the**

*charge***of a complex object like a star (anything beyond mass, angular momentum, and charge) is**

*physical information***when a black hole is formed. This loss, however, contradicts quantum theory, which states that physical information cannot be irretrievably lost. This contradiction results in the as-yet unresolved**

*lost***or**

*black hole information paradox***.**

*firewall paradox*

__SCHWARZSCHILD RADIUS__

Given an object of a certain mass, the Schwarzschild radius defines the ** radius of the sphere that object would need to be compressed into to form a black hole**. Thus, you can define a Schwarzschild radius for any object, including the Earth. An object with the mass of our Earth would need to be compressed to approximately the size of a ping pong ball in order to form a black hole.

__METRICS__

Recall that, according to the no-hair theorem, black holes are described by ** mass, charge, and angular momentum**. Black holes are categorized by different combinations of these values. There are metrics describing how each possible combination deforms spacetime. The

**describes the**

*Kerr Metric***around an**

*geometry of spacetime***. The Kerr Metric was developed from the**

*uncharged, rotating black hole***, which describes black holes**

*Schwarzschild Metric***. The**

*without angular momentum or charge***describes black holes with**

*Reissner-Nordström Metric***. Finally, the**

*charge but no angular momentum***describes black holes with**

*Kerr-Newman Metric***.**

*both charge and angular momentum*

__HAWKING RADIATION__

Hawking Radiation is a ** theoretical radiation **emitted from just beyond a black hole’s event horizon.

**proposed this phenomenon in 1974, suggesting that pairs of subatomic particles (like photons and anti-photons) could**

*Stephen Hawking***at the edge of an event horizon. The positive particle might escape the black hole while the**

*arise spontaneously***falls back into it. Over time (an extremely, extremely long time) this flow of**

*antiparticle***would reduce the black hole’s mass, effectively**

*negative particles***it until it disappears.**

*evaporating*

*****

*Quizbowl is about learning, not rote memorization, so we encourage you to use this as a springboard for further reading rather than as an endpoint. Here are a few things to check out: *

● The good folks at Swinburne Astronomy Online offer an online encyclopedia of astronomy that breaks complex astronomical ideas down into engaging, easily digestible chunks.

● Confused about the black hole information paradox? Me too. Unfortunately we don’t have the time to do its complexity justice here. However, if you want to learn more about it check out this article.

● Play around with this astrophysics calculator and learn more about the relationship between mass and the Schwarzschild radius.

● Want a great overview of black holes? Check out this video from National Geographic:

● And finally... American ambient composer William Basinski recorded an album in 2019, *On Time Out of Time, *which creates a hypnotic soundscape from the gravitational waves generated by two supermassive black holes colliding. Listen to an excerpt of the album here:

*Want to learn a ton more quizbowl information, compete on thousands of questions and generally have a blast this summer? *__Come Qwiz with us!__*Questions? Have a great idea for a future Qwiz5? We'd love to hear from you! Email us at *__hello@qwizbowl.com__

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